In fact there have been a number of worth-while scholarly journal articles recently that relate to fly fishing. Here are a few:
- Fish-eating mice. You can read a fly-fishing-focused take on this and related concepts in the August/September 2015 edition of American Angler.
- Rainbow trout show smell preferences and taste preferences (H/T Anne Marie Emery of the Henry's Fork Foundation). Obviously trout get keyed, but sometimes what they've keyed on doesn't make sense. Here's solid evidence with rationale.
- Alarm signals in fish (are they letting each other know when we're around?):
I'm sure there are many more - feel free to comment with any similar articles you've found...